The Asom Sahitya Sabha (Assamese: অসম সাহিত্য সভা, or “The Literary Society of Assam”) was founded in 1917 in Assam as a guardian of the Assamese society and the forum for the development and enrichment of Assamese language and literature. Presently it has about one thousand branches all over Assam and also outside the state. The central office is at Jorhat a city of historical importance. The branches and the district units also have their offices in their respective places.Till 1826 A.D. Assam was ruled mainly by Ahom and Koch dynasties. In 1826, Assam came under the rule of the British, and in the process it had become a part of the political map of India. Of course Assam was always an integral part of the cultural map of India.
However, the history of modern Assam, modern Assamese language and literature and culture found their starting points in the early part of the 19th century. Since 1872 some efforts were made to build up some organizations to work for the development of Assamese language, literature and culture of the modern period.
Asom Sahitya Sabha was the end results of all those efforts. In 1917 it came into existence. The first conference was held in the month of December 1917 under the president ship of Padmanath Gohain Baruah, an eminent person in the history of modern Assamese literature. Since then the annual conference, nowadays biennial, is held with great pomp and grandeur, and a writer of high reputation is elected to the presidency of the Society. The anthem of Asom Sahitya Sabha was composed by Mitradev Mahanta.
The biannual session of the Sabha has become now a big literary festival, unique in its character, which is attended by lakhs and lakhs of people. The writers of the state assemble, exchange their views, and address the people. The last Sahitya Sabha Session has recently been observed in February, 2011 at Dergaon, in the District of Golaghat, Assam. SahityaAcademy award Winner, Shri Rongbong Terang from Karbi Anglong presided over the Dergaon Session. With the primary objective of the to make all round development of the Assamese language, literature and the multifarious but indigenous culture of the State, Asom Sahitya Sabha is endowed and committed to publicize of Dictionary, Grammar, Research works, monographs on languages, literature, culture, tribes and races, books on literary criticism, complete works of the great writers of Assam etc. It also aims to the publication of Assamese Encyclopedia, to enquire, collect and research on ancient literature of the State of Assam, to find out and publish the rare books, to recognize and award the outstanding writers, scholars and artists of the state, to promote music, art and sculpture of the State, etc, etc.